Category: Publication

The epidemiological signature of influenza B virus and its B/Victoria and B/Yamagata lineages in the 21st century

We describe the epidemiological characteristics, pattern of circulation, and geographical distribution of influenza B viruses and its lineages using data from the Global Influenza B Study. We included over 1.8 million influenza cases occurred in thirty-one countries during 2000–2018. We calculated the proportion of cases caused by influenza B and its lineages; determined the timing… [Read more]

This was posted on Saturday, November 2nd, 2019 By in Publication , .

Malaria elimination in Bhutan: asymptomatic malaria cases in the Bhutanese population living in malaria-risk areas and in migrant workers from India

Introduction: In 2018, Bhutan reported 54 cases of malaria, of which six were indigenous, 14 introduced and 34 imported. Considering the continuous reduction in the number of indigenous cases, Bhutan plans to eliminate malaria by 2025 under the Bhutan Malaria Elimination Strategy. The study was conducted to assess the presence of asymptomatic plasmodial infection in… [Read more]

This was posted on Monday, September 23rd, 2019 By in Publication , .

Measles and rubella immunity in the population of Bhutan, 2017

Background: In 2017, measles elimination was verified in Bhutan, and the country appears to have sufficiently high vaccination coverage to achieve rubella elimination. However, a measles and rubella serosurvey was conducted to find if any hidden immunity gaps existed that could threaten Bhutan’s elimination status. Methods: A nationwide, three-stage, cluster seroprevalence survey was conducted among… [Read more]

This was posted on Monday, September 23rd, 2019 By in Publication , .

The Burden of Influenza-Associated Respiratory Hospitalizations in Bhutan, 2015-2016

Background: Influenza burden estimates help provide evidence to support influenza prevention and control programs. In this study, we estimated influenza-associated respiratory hospitalization rates in Bhutan, a country considering influenza vaccine introduction. Methods: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction laboratory results from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance, we estimated the proportion of respiratory hospitalizations… [Read more]

This was posted on Wednesday, October 24th, 2018 By in Publication .

Distribution of influenza virus types by age using case-based global surveillance data from twenty-nine countries, 1999-2014

Background: Influenza disease burden varies by age and this has important public health implications. We compared the proportional distribution of different influenza virus types within age strata using surveillance data from twenty-nine countries during 1999-2014 (N=358,796 influenza cases). Methods: For each virus, we calculated a Relative Illness Ratio (defined as the ratio of the percentage… [Read more]

This was posted on Tuesday, October 9th, 2018 By in Publication .

Relying on Widal test alone could lead to over diagnosis of typhoid fever: Findings from a records review of febrile patients at Damphu Hospital, Bhutan, 2011-2012

Introduction: The Widal test is widely used in hospitals in Bhutan for diagnosis of typhoid fever. The right test with high sensitivity and specificity supplements clinical judgement and contributes to correct diagnosis of disease. This study focuses on the contribution of the Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Methods: Data was collected from… [Read more]

This was posted on Wednesday, July 4th, 2018 By in Publication .

Measles Outbreak among Nomadic Population with Low Herd Immunity in an Eastern District of Bhutan, 2016

During September-November 2016, a number of measles cases were reported from Trashigang District, Bhutan. The outbreak was investigated to determine epidemiological characteristics and risk factors, and recommend control measures. Hospital records of measles cases were reviewed. An active case finding was conducted in the affected communities and schools. Vaccination records were also reviewed. A case-control… [Read more]

This was posted on Thursday, March 29th, 2018 By in Publication , , .

Retrospective use of next-generation sequencing reveals the presence of Enteroviruses in acute influenza-like illness respiratory samples collected in South/South-East Asia during 2010–2013

Background: Emerging and re-emerging respiratory pathogens represent an increasing threat to public health. Etiological determination during outbreaks generally relies on clinical information, occasionally accompanied by traditional laboratory molecular or serological testing. Often, this limited testing leads to inconclusive findings. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) collected 12,865 nasopharyngeal specimens from acute influenza-like… [Read more]

This was posted on Monday, September 25th, 2017 By in Publication .

Surveillance of norovirus among children with diarrhea in four major hospitals in Bhutan: Replacement of GII.21 by GII.3 as a dominant genotype

Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Bhutanese children. The etiology of diarrhea is not well known due to the challenges of conducting routine surveillance with Bhutan’s modest research facilities. Establishing an etiology is crucial toward generating evidence that will contribute to policy discussions on a diarrheal disease control program. Our previous… [Read more]

This was posted on Monday, September 25th, 2017 By in Publication .

Performance and user acceptance of the Bhutan febrile and malaria information system: report from a pilot study

Over the last decade, Bhutan has made substantial progress in controlling malaria. The country is now in an elimination phase, aiming to achieve no locally transmitted malaria by 2018. However, challenges remain and innovative control strategies are needed to overcome these. The evaluation and user acceptance of a robust surveillance tool applicable for informing malaria… [Read more]

This was posted on Thursday, June 15th, 2017 By in Publication , , .