Category: Publication

The Burden of Influenza-Associated Respiratory Hospitalizations in Bhutan, 2015-2016

Background: Influenza burden estimates help provide evidence to support influenza prevention and control programs. In this study, we estimated influenza-associated respiratory hospitalization rates in Bhutan, a country considering influenza vaccine introduction. Methods: Using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction laboratory results from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) surveillance, we estimated the proportion of respiratory hospitalizations… [Read more]

This was posted on Wednesday, October 24th, 2018 By in Publication .

Distribution of influenza virus types by age using case-based global surveillance data from twenty-nine countries, 1999-2014

Background: Influenza disease burden varies by age and this has important public health implications. We compared the proportional distribution of different influenza virus types within age strata using surveillance data from twenty-nine countries during 1999-2014 (N=358,796 influenza cases). Methods: For each virus, we calculated a Relative Illness Ratio (defined as the ratio of the percentage… [Read more]

This was posted on Tuesday, October 9th, 2018 By in Publication .

Relying on Widal test alone could lead to over diagnosis of typhoid fever: Findings from a records review of febrile patients at Damphu Hospital, Bhutan, 2011-2012

Introduction: The Widal test is widely used in hospitals in Bhutan for diagnosis of typhoid fever. The right test with high sensitivity and specificity supplements clinical judgement and contributes to correct diagnosis of disease. This study focuses on the contribution of the Widal test in the diagnosis of typhoid fever. Methods: Data was collected from… [Read more]

This was posted on Wednesday, July 4th, 2018 By in Publication .

Measles Outbreak among Nomadic Population with Low Herd Immunity in an Eastern District of Bhutan, 2016

During September-November 2016, a number of measles cases were reported from Trashigang District, Bhutan. The outbreak was investigated to determine epidemiological characteristics and risk factors, and recommend control measures. Hospital records of measles cases were reviewed. An active case finding was conducted in the affected communities and schools. Vaccination records were also reviewed. A case-control… [Read more]

This was posted on Thursday, March 29th, 2018 By in Publication , , .

Retrospective use of next-generation sequencing reveals the presence of Enteroviruses in acute influenza-like illness respiratory samples collected in South/South-East Asia during 2010–2013

Background: Emerging and re-emerging respiratory pathogens represent an increasing threat to public health. Etiological determination during outbreaks generally relies on clinical information, occasionally accompanied by traditional laboratory molecular or serological testing. Often, this limited testing leads to inconclusive findings. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) collected 12,865 nasopharyngeal specimens from acute influenza-like… [Read more]

This was posted on Monday, September 25th, 2017 By in Publication .

Surveillance of norovirus among children with diarrhea in four major hospitals in Bhutan: Replacement of GII.21 by GII.3 as a dominant genotype

Diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Bhutanese children. The etiology of diarrhea is not well known due to the challenges of conducting routine surveillance with Bhutan’s modest research facilities. Establishing an etiology is crucial toward generating evidence that will contribute to policy discussions on a diarrheal disease control program. Our previous… [Read more]

This was posted on Monday, September 25th, 2017 By in Publication .

Performance and user acceptance of the Bhutan febrile and malaria information system: report from a pilot study

Over the last decade, Bhutan has made substantial progress in controlling malaria. The country is now in an elimination phase, aiming to achieve no locally transmitted malaria by 2018. However, challenges remain and innovative control strategies are needed to overcome these. The evaluation and user acceptance of a robust surveillance tool applicable for informing malaria… [Read more]

This was posted on Thursday, June 15th, 2017 By in Publication , , .

VivaxGEN: An open access platform for comparative analysis of short tandem repeat genotyping data in Plasmodium vivax populations

The control and elimination of Plasmodium vivax will require a better understanding of its transmission dynamics, through the application of genotyping and population genetics analyses. This paper describes VivaxGEN (, a web-based platform that has been developed to support P. vivax short tandem repeat data sharing and comparative analyses. ReadFull

This was posted on Friday, May 12th, 2017 By in Publication .

Acute Gastroenteritis Outbreak Associated with a Sports Event in Bumthang, Bhutan, 2012

On 6 Sep 2012, a medical officer from Bumthang Hospital notified the Royal Center for Disease Control, Ministry of Health in Thimphu, Bhutan, of an outbreak of gastroenteritis among students following an annual sports-event. We investigated this outbreak to verify the diagnosis, identify risk factors, and recommend control measures. A case control study was used… [Read more]

This was posted on Friday, March 31st, 2017 By in Publication, Report .

A case report on meningococcal septicaemia in Kalabazaar, Thimphu, November 2016

We report here a case study of meningococcal septicaemia caused by Neisseria meningitidis in Kalabazaar, Thimphu on November 2016. The one-year old patient had no history of contact with any infected individuals in the past two weeks before his onset, neither did he travel anywhere besides his one-storey traditional residence. The patient was hospitalized and… [Read more]

This was posted on Friday, December 30th, 2016 By in Publication, Report .